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1: A yellow fever vaccination certificate is required from travellers over one year of age coming from infected areas. Travellers arriving from non-endemic zones should note that vaccination is strongly recommended for travel outside the urban areas, even if an outbreak of the disease has not been reported and they would normally not require a vaccination certificate to enter the country.
2: Following WHO guidelines issued in 1973, a cholera vaccination certificate is no longer a condition of entry to Eritrea. However, cholera is a serious risk in this country and precautions are essential. Up-to-date advice should be sought before deciding whether these precautions should include vaccination as medical opinion is divided over its effectiveness. See the Health section for further information.
3: Malaria risk exists throughout the year in all areas below 2000m. Highly chloroquine-resistant falciparum has been reported.
4: All water should be regarded as being potentially contaminated. Water used for drinking, brushing teeth or making ice should have first been boiled or otherwise sterilised. Milk is unpasteurised and should be boiled. Powdered or tinned milk is available and is advised, but make sure that it is reconstituted with purewater. Avoid dairy products which are likely to have been made from unboiled milk. Only eat well-cooked meat and fish, preferably served hot. Pork, salad and mayonnaise may carry increased risk. Vegetables should be cooked and fruit peeled.Poliomyelitis is endemic. Rabies is present. For those at high risk, vaccination before arrival should be considered. If you are bitten, seek medical advice without delay. For more information, consult the Health section. Bilharzia (schistosomiasis) is present. Avoid swimming and paddling in fresh water. Swimming pools which are well-chlorinated and maintained are safe. HepatitisA, B, E are present and vaccinations against hepatits B and tetanus are recommended. Meningococcal meningitis is a risk, depending on the area visited and time of year.
Health care: Time is needed to acclimatise to the high altitude and low oxygen level. Those who suffer from heart ailments or high blood pressure should consult a doctor before travelling. Medical services are adequate throughout the country: however, modern facilities are not always available and supplies can be irregular. Visitors should bring a supply of any necessary drugs and prescriptions. Chemists can be found in larger towns. The country has an extensive network of health workers. Regional and district clinics and the central hospital in Asmara deal with emergencies. Health insurance is strongly advised